Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Welfare and Individual Responsibility

Welfare and Individual Responsibility Introduction The U.S. welfare system has grown overtime from a government run system to a state run system. The rationale behind this shift is that a state run function provides a better welfare system that sufficiently addresses the needs of those involved.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Welfare and Individual Responsibility specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This includes the taxpayers who ultimately raise funds for the welfare programs. States have the discretion to prescribe the eligibility criteria and determine the length of time a family may benefit from welfare. Nevertheless, the fundamental ethical issues behind welfare still prevail. The greatest ethical issue that raises a heated debate is the extent to which individuals should be held responsible for their own well-being. According to Federal Safety Net (2013), the U.S. welfare system places the middle class ahead of individuals in severe poverty. Other pe ople argue that the welfare system tends to take away pride from the able poor and fails to assist them escape poverty. Accordingly, the compassion given to the â€Å"poor† may send some signal that the so called poor are not capable of moving beyond their plight (Federal Safety Net, 2013). Application of Virtue Ethics Virtue ethics is very essential in the welfare system. According to Aristotle, a person’s quality of life is dependent on his or her ability to accomplish minimum human goals (Sumner, 1996, p.110). The ultimate goal of all human beings is to have a good, independent life. Many states have programs that focus on promoting employment for individuals so that they may stop relying on welfare. Virtue ethics concentrates on the significance of beating bad character traits such as selfishness and laziness. Rather than focusing on prescribed rules and ways of solving problems, virtue ethics concentrates on assisting people to acquire good habits such as compassi on. Aristotle further suggests that good habits enable people to control their feelings and reason. As a result, a person arrives at morally right decisions when confronted with hard choices. The parties involved in the welfare process should embrace virtue ethics so that they invoke morality in decision-making processes. The government should also use ethical principles in making choices regarding the eligibility and length of time an individual is to benefit from the welfare program. The problem with virtue ethics is that it is very difficult to determine good character traits. This is because people view things differently. Application of Care Ethics Care ethics puts emphasis on the interdependence of individuals (Jawad, 2012, p. 24). In addition, the theory promotes the significance of relationships within families and communities. Care ethics proposes that some individuals are more vulnerable than others.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Proponents of this theory argue on the basis of Carol Gilligan’s assertion that girls and women view morality from an empathic and caring perspective in interpersonal relationships. This theory encourages altruism, which involves caring for others’ needs and feelings. Unlike the Kantian and Platonic theories, care ethics does not separate moral thoughts from feelings (Jawad, 2012, p. 33). Care ethics is also different from the libertarian theory which encourages individual independence. Those who argue in support of welfare claim that self-interest is not the only thing that motivates people’s actions (Westfall, 1997). Human beings have an inherent duty of promoting the welfare of the society and its members. Accordingly, stable members naturally have an indomitable willingness to work and support the poor to pick up themselves and act in the same respect toward other members. Critics of care ethi cs contend that the theory focuses on care without putting much inquiry into individuals giving or receiving the same. This theory does not settle claims that the welfare program puts the middle class ahead of the extremely poor people. Furthermore, care ethics fails to determine whether the relationships among care-givers and care-receivers are just (Jawad, 2012, p. 56). Conclusion There is no universally accepted way of evaluating ethical issues. Different theories attempt to solve different ethical problems. The utilitarian theory, which proposes the greatest happiness for the greatest number (Waller, 2011, p. 44, 87), can be applied in solving the welfare problem. The main purpose of utilitarianism is to maximize happiness and minimize suffering. Essentially, individuals make decisions in line with what causes them greatest pleasure. They only engage in what pleases them when given an opportunity. Some people can take advantage of the welfare system so that they receive maintena nce without working. Both â€Å"act utilitarianism† and â€Å"rule utilitarianism† place a great emphasis on the probable consequence of one’s actions (Waller, 2011, p.88). To some scholars, care ethics may pose a great temptation to individuals with self-interest motivation so that they choose not to work. The care ethic cannot exist on its own since it increases the chances of oppression or exploitation of care-givers. Individuals in a society expect from others, and themselves, behavior that promotes the well-being of all members. Utilitarianism advocates for individualism. This implies that the only morally relevant measure is individual welfare (Sumner, 1996, p. 67). Basing on the critical assumption that human utility is commensurable in some way and that it can be divided among individuals, welfare should be distributed in a manner that maximizes happiness and minimizes suffering.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Welfare and Indiv idual Responsibility specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Federal Safety Net. (2013, June). Welfare Ethics. Retrieved from http://federalsafetynet.com/welfare-ethics.html Jawad, R. (2012). Religion and Faith-Based Welfare: From Wellbeing to Ways of Being. Bristol: The Policy Press. Sumner, L. W. (1996). Welfare, Happiness and Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Waller, B.N. (2011). Consider Ethics: Theory, Readings, and Contemporary Issues, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Westfall, J. (1997). The Welfare of the Community. Issues in Ethics, 8(3). Retrieved from https://legacy.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v8n3/welfare.html

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Using the French Expression Grâce à Correctly

Using the French Expression Grà ¢ce Correctly The French expression grà ¢ce (pronounced grah sa) is a common phrase that people use to give credit to someone or something for a positive event or outcome. It is the rough equivalent in English of the phrase thanks to. Examples Like most French grammar youll use, grà ¢ce   is spoken in the normal  register, meaning its used in everyday conversation, neither formal nor informal in tone. You may find yourself saying in any number of situations, such as these:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Grà ¢ce mon mari, jai une idà ©e pour un livre.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Thanks to my husband, I have an idea for a book.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Grà ¢ce ton assistance, il a fini le travail.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Thanks to your help, he finished the work.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Grà ¢ce Dieu!  Ã‚  Ã‚  Thank God! Variations You can also modify this phrase to say its thanks to... by placing the word  cest in front of grà ¢ce :  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sil a rà ©ussi lexamen, cest grà ¢ce toi.  Ã‚  Ã‚  If he passed the test, its all thanks to you.Remember that followed by the definite article le or les must contract:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cest grà ¢ce au centre de loisirs que je sais utiliser Facebook.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Its thanks to the leisure center that I know how to use Facebook.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Grà ¢ce aux conseils de Pierre, nous avons trouvà © la maison parfaite.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Thanks to Pierres advice, we found the perfect house.Antonym: To blame someone or something for a negative event or situation, use the expression cause de.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Stamp Act of 1765. The single event most contributory to the American Essay

Stamp Act of 1765. The single event most contributory to the American Revolution - Essay Example The successful outcome of the war for the colonials also showed a great military power can be defeated by the ragtag guerilla army composed mostly of militia members who were essentially farmers and ordinary citizens. This is an event that could have been prevented only if the British monarch at that time used common sense and listened to the voice of the colonial people and the war could have been averted. It is not hard to imagine how a disciplined British army could be defeated by irregulars or part-time soldiers raised by George Washington and taught in the use of hit-and-run guerilla tactics learned from the native Americans or the red Indians. The American Revolution was in fact a war for independence because the American people already had more than enough of all the accumulated grievances and aggravations they suffered under an autocratic British monarch. The Americans got tired of always complaining and not being heard; their previous grievances were all practically ignored and they were looked down as second-class citizens with little or no rights at all to demand what is due them in a supposedly reasonable form of enlightened rule. It is an amazing turn of events because the two combatants were not equal in power in terms of men, war materials, experience, and logistics but the American Revolution is an example of what is called as an asymmetric war. The two belligerents did not have the same war strategy or military tactics either. It was the Stamp Act of 1765 passed by the British parliament which had contributed significantly to the outbreak of hostilities in the American Revolution. Discussion There were already many grumblings from the American colonial people prior to the actual start of the American Revolution and the British monarchy could have taken heed of these complaints but it chose not to hear these valid complaints but instead chose to ignore them. It is a twist of fate that the Stamp Act of 1765 could be the so-called â€Å"final str aw that broke the camel's back† as the old adage goes, because prior to this onerous or burdensome new tax, there were a good number of British official acts which drew anger and adverse reaction from the Americans. Among these previous laws were the series of Navigation Acts which restricted shipping and the resulting trade between British colonies and other countries, the intent being to force a business relationship that is mainly favorable to England only, the Molasses Act of 1733 which imposed a six pence tax per gallon of imported molasses, and followed by the Sugar Act of 1764 imposing a lower three pence tax per gallon of imported molasses to ensure a better tax compliance. All these parliament acts were intended not only to raise much-needed revenues for the government expenses associated with maintaining its various colonies but also to ensure that its monopoly on trading with the colonies is tightened as it is a very lucrative business indeed and England does not wa nt other foreign countries as competitors. The Stamp Act of 1765 was really a way to raise new taxes for the maintenance of a standing army in North America just in case a new war breaks out and this army was intended as a deterrent. This latest act of 1765 imposed a direct tax on most printed materials used in the American colonies like on all legal documents, in newspapers, magazines, and books by requiring the use of a special paper embossed with a logo of the British revenue stamp. In effect, this new act was a form of direct tax on the colonies. The Stamp Act o

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Inverted Yield Curve Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Inverted Yield Curve - Essay Example The value of a bond is dependent on its required return. â€Å"Whenever the required return on bonds differs from the bond’s coupon interest rate, the bond’s value will differ from its par value. The required return is likely to differ from coupon interest rate because either (1) economic conditions have changed; causing a shift in the basic cost of long-term funds, or (2) the firm’s risk has changed. Increases in the basic cost of long-term funds or in risk will raise the required return; decreases in the cost of funds or in risk will lower the required return† (Lawrence J. Gitman). This is the basic principle of interest rates and bond valuation. The above principle shows that the bond valuation is dependent mostly on economic conditions and the firm’s risk taking ability. So when reasons for lower interest on long-term bonds as compared to short-term bonds are analyzed, it reflects the character of economic conditions. In this way, the bond interest rates work as the barometer of the economic conditions. Normally long term investments are made in the avenues that show steady performances over a period of time and provide the reasonable rate of return. It is seen that whenever stock market underperforms, investors withdraw money from stocks and usually invest in long-term bonds. This raises the demand for bonds and as a result of demand and supply interactions, the requirement of funds through debts instruments decreases; and the result decreases in the interest rates of bonds.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Comparison of Miracle on St. Davids Day by Gillian Clarke and Daffodil

Comparison of Miracle on St. David's Day by Gillian Clarke and Daffodils by William Wordsworth 'Daffodils' was written by William Wordsworth approximately a century before 'Miracle on St. David's Day' was written by Gillian Clarke. Due to this, the poems differ greatly in their style and language. Observing the poems at first glance, it is obvious that they also contrast in content, however at greater depth, the connections between them are made obvious. In this essay, I will be discussing the connections and differences between the two poems. The daffodil is the national symbol of Wales; it represents hope, joy and celebration. Both of the poets make this markedly palpable using this as a theme for their poems. In 'Miracle on St. David's Day' daffodils are mentioned at the beginning and end of the poem, carrying significance as it is they that remind the 'big, dumb labouring manà ¢? ¦' of a time when he had something to say. The man speaks for the first time in forty years, reciting the poem 'Daffodils' implying that this is what he has to say: the joy and hope evoked in him by both the daffodils that he sees and the poem 'Daffodils'. Wordsworth is less subtle is his regard of daffodils, his poem is more conspicuous in portraying the 'fluttering dancing jocund ' daffodils as they fill his heart with pleasure and this image of the daffodils is the same throughout the poem. Both poems depict how it is the daffodils that evoke some form of emotion in either the author himself, or a character in the poem. In 'Miracle on St. David's Day' the 'yellow and open-mouthed [daffodils]' and the 'rhythms of the poems' remind him that 'once he had something to say' and brings him out of his 'dumbness of misery', w... ... importance of a word or emotion ' I gazed- and gazed ' To gaze implies to watch with a certain amount of emotion, unlike to simply look at something. By repeating the word gaze, he emphasises that the flowers actually meant something to him. Wordsworth also uses onomatopoeia to allow the reader to visualise the description, ' fluttering ' The word allows the reader to see the daffodils fluttering, like a butterfly. These descriptive words are often used in association with a well-known description for example: the fluttering butterflies. Having studied both poems in depth, it is clear that they have more differences than similarities. However, they both have the same underlying theme of something wonderful happening that should be treasured, although they have presented this theme differently to the reader (different setting, characters, topic etc.). Comparison of Miracle on St. David's Day by Gillian Clarke and Daffodil Comparison of Miracle on St. David's Day by Gillian Clarke and Daffodils by William Wordsworth 'Daffodils' was written by William Wordsworth approximately a century before 'Miracle on St. David's Day' was written by Gillian Clarke. Due to this, the poems differ greatly in their style and language. Observing the poems at first glance, it is obvious that they also contrast in content, however at greater depth, the connections between them are made obvious. In this essay, I will be discussing the connections and differences between the two poems. The daffodil is the national symbol of Wales; it represents hope, joy and celebration. Both of the poets make this markedly palpable using this as a theme for their poems. In 'Miracle on St. David's Day' daffodils are mentioned at the beginning and end of the poem, carrying significance as it is they that remind the 'big, dumb labouring manà ¢? ¦' of a time when he had something to say. The man speaks for the first time in forty years, reciting the poem 'Daffodils' implying that this is what he has to say: the joy and hope evoked in him by both the daffodils that he sees and the poem 'Daffodils'. Wordsworth is less subtle is his regard of daffodils, his poem is more conspicuous in portraying the 'fluttering dancing jocund ' daffodils as they fill his heart with pleasure and this image of the daffodils is the same throughout the poem. Both poems depict how it is the daffodils that evoke some form of emotion in either the author himself, or a character in the poem. In 'Miracle on St. David's Day' the 'yellow and open-mouthed [daffodils]' and the 'rhythms of the poems' remind him that 'once he had something to say' and brings him out of his 'dumbness of misery', w... ... importance of a word or emotion ' I gazed- and gazed ' To gaze implies to watch with a certain amount of emotion, unlike to simply look at something. By repeating the word gaze, he emphasises that the flowers actually meant something to him. Wordsworth also uses onomatopoeia to allow the reader to visualise the description, ' fluttering ' The word allows the reader to see the daffodils fluttering, like a butterfly. These descriptive words are often used in association with a well-known description for example: the fluttering butterflies. Having studied both poems in depth, it is clear that they have more differences than similarities. However, they both have the same underlying theme of something wonderful happening that should be treasured, although they have presented this theme differently to the reader (different setting, characters, topic etc.).

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Bruce Beresford’s “Black Robe”: A Movie About Religious Conversion

Alexander Bermeo February 25, 2013 WHO 2001 – U01 Black Robe Although throughout the film it was evident that other Indian tribes, such as the Iroquois and Algonquin, did not want to convert to Christianity because it went against their own beliefs, the Huron’s were able to go against their belief and accept Christianity.Despite the Huron’s disapproval of the religion because of their own beliefs they eventually accept the religion based on the perception of father LaForgue and his humbleness when he arrives to the settlement, the Huron’s respective chauvinism changes and begins to tolerate the religion as time goes by when the settlement accepts Christianity and the honesty LaForgue gives off, and a cultural rapprochement is evident when the Huron settlement accept Christianity when father LaForgue is there and becomes the priest of the settlement.The film Black Robe shows that there was a successful convergence of the religion the Huron’s had to C hristianity. Throughout the film all the tribes did not like father LaForgue, as well as LaForgue’s assistant, Daniel. It is clear the Indians do not like father LaForgue because they discriminate him by referring to him as â€Å"black robe† and not by his actual name. (Black Robe) Also, when the Algonquin’s abandon LaForgue Daniel continues with the Indian tribe and they do not like it nor do they like him following them.For example, one member of the tribe attempts to murder Daniel as he is following the tribe. (Black Robe) However, despite all these things that have occurred father LaForgue remains humble and when he finally reaches the Huron settlement he respects the tribe and tells them that he loves them even though the other Indians tortured him and put him through a tough journey. During father LaForgue’s journey to the Huron settlement it is clear that each Indian tribe show a strong chauvinistic view on their respective religions. For example, even though LaForgue goes through many trials and ribulations with the Algonquin tribe, he is still with the chief as he is dying and still refuses LaForgue’s request to convert, and the chief even tells his daughter to abandon LaForgue because he witnessed it in his dream. (Black Robe) However, when LaForgue finally reaches the Huron’s it is evident that they too were strong in their faith. It is clear that they did not want to accept Christianity because they murdered one of the French inhabitants that were there in the beginning. (Black Robe) Despite the Huron’s resistance, they eventually accepted father LaForgue and Christianity because he was honest and loving towards the Huron’s.LaForgue was able to reveal the previous inhabitants lie to the Huron’s that baptism will cure their disease by saying it wouldn’t and be honest to the Huron’s to gain their respect, as well as their trust. Throughout the film there is always tension be tween the Indians and father LaForgue based on his ethnicity and more importantly his religion. However, a cultural rapprochement is reached between LaForgue and the Huron’s towards the end of the movie. This is evident when LaForgue finally reaches the settlement and sees that the Huron’s are lost and hopeless because they are slowly dying due to disease.Seeing how weak they are, LaForgue is asked by the Huron’s many questions to solidify his presence in the settlement. LaForgue eventually tells them the truth about the baptizing and that he loves all of them, even though he was mistreated and abandoned by the other Indians. When LaForgue is asked the question if he loves them, he flashes back on all the faces of the Indians he encountered on his voyage and he also reaches a cultural rapprochement with the Huron’s, and all the other Indians, by saying he loves them. With that response, the Huron’s accept LaForgue, and Christianity, and are baptize d at the end of the film. (Black Robe)Although throughout the film it is evident that the Indians, such as the Iroquois and Algonquin, reject Christianity because it goes against their own beliefs, the Huron’s were able to go against their own beliefs and accept Christianity. The Huron’s were able to accept Christianity because of the perception father LaForgue gave off and his humbleness he evokes in the settlement, the Huron’s respective chauvinism begins to change as they forego their own religion and accept Christianity through father LaForgue, and a cultural rapprochement is evident when father LaForgue arrives at the settlement and baptizes the Huron’s.